UCTV VIDEOCAST Adolescent Depression & Anxiety

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UCTV VIDEOCAST Adolescent Depression & Anxiety

Summary:
1.
– Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress
– Anxiety is often a problem when: Excessive irrational dread of every day situations
– anxiety often disables all daily functions such as school, work, social activities
– 5 to 30% of cases have a co-morbid disorder (Depression)
Source: National Institute of mental health
2.
– Anxiety can manifest in multiple disorders
3.
– Anxiety has a range of physical symptoms (Including tremors & twitches)
4.
Depression
– Depressed and/or irritable mood
– Loss of interest or pleasure
– disables daily functions such as school, work, social activities
5.
Depression types
– Persistent depressive disorder (Disthymia)
– Major depressive disorder [Severity; Episodic; Psychotic features]
– Adjustment disorder
– Bipolar disorder – depressive phase
[Source: DSM-5]
6.
Depression symptoms
– Weight change
– Sleep change (falling asleep, nightmares, waking-up during the night)
– Restlessness (Feeling on edge) or being slow down
– Fatigue, lack of energy
– Feelings of worthlessness, excessive guilt
– Inability to concentrate
– Indecisiveness
– Thoughts of death of a recurring nature
7.
1 in 4 or 5 adolescents meet the criteria for a mental health disorder
– Anxiety – 32% of adolescent population | Age of onset – six years | F>M
– Depression – 12% of adolescent population | Age of onset – 13 years | F> M
Source: Merikanga et al., 2010
8.
Why are mental health problems so prevalent during adolescence?
– Biology
– Sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep affects mood)
– Hormonal changes
– Increased levels of stress
– School/academic pressures (& more responsibility generally)
– Substance use
9.
– anxiety prevalence within the population remains stable as we age
– Depression problems within the population increases over time as we age (Particularly during adolescence) & Then it too plateaus over time
– Intervention early enhances overall quality of life & addresses risk of suicide & self-harm (find replacement activities which do not harm for these behaviours)
10.
– Anxiety & depression treatment works
– In particular cognitive behavioural therapy alone or in combination with SSRI medication (When at the right dose it becomes effective at approximately 4 to 5 weeks)
– Typical side-effects: Diarrhoea, Nausea, Headaches, Increase in suicidal thoughts
[Note if the person has bipolar disorder and is diagnosed with an SSRI, this can trigger a manic episode]
11. Barriers to treatment
– Not wishing to be labelled
– Personality (that is believed cannot be changed & is therefore just the way it is) versus changing thoughts behaviour
12.
Use HEADSs
HEADSS APPROACH
H – Home
E – Education and employment
A – Activities
D – Drugs and alcohol
S – Sexuality
S – Suicide risk/depression

Use this @ https://headspace.org.au/assets/Uploads/headspace-psychosocial-assessment.pdf

13.
Use depression/anxiety screens
– tired all the time – get medical advice re fevers, cancer & other inflammatory conditions; menstrual periods (if heavy may cause anaemia)
– hypothyroidism – can look like depression – comes with constipation, cold intolerance
– mood – sleep hygiene/regular schedule; decrease caffeinated drinks, melatonin (Naturally occurring hormone in the brain which regulates circadian rhythm)

Broadcast date: 13 January 2015 | Presenter: Dr Josephine Lau

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