Re-Reading is Inefficient – 8 Steps for Studying Smarter – ability, intelligence, & learning are related to how you approach learning – i.e. working smarter.
Active learning strategies are recommended on the basis of psychological research. Such strategies include: flash cards, diagramming & quizzing yourself so as to discover gaps.
Summary of main points:
1. Don’t just re-read class notes, assignments & text book chapters
– most students report this is there number one go to strategy.
– Research shows the second reading is often cursory because it creates the false impression that you know it, when in fact there are most likely gaps in your knowledge
2. Ask yourself lots of questions. Better to read once & ask yourself lots of questions.
– retrieving information actually helps with memory consolidation
– when you get it wrong, it provides an accurate diagnostic for what you do not know.
– questions to ask yourself are: Why? How? What?
[so instead of reading & skimming, ask yourself questions to aid your understanding
3. Connect new information to what you already know.
– on the second reading, relate new information to material you already know
4. Draw out the information in a visual form
– use drawings, diagrams, flow charts, visual models
– very effective for memory retention
[more engaged learning rather than passive learning]
5. Flash cards so you can re-test yourself (even for those things you get right)
– repeating is good for memory retrieval
6. Don’t cram – space out your study & repetition to aid memory retention
7. Teachers should do this too – that is go over things in class & in homework
8. No such thing as a maths person.
– Carol Dweck from Stanford University has researched student mindsets about learning where they typically fall in one of two categories:
– fixed learning – i.e. “I have a certain amount of talent for this topic.” – Where beyond a certain point, the student thinks they can no longer learn/develop.
– growth mindset – learning involves using effective strategies, putting aside time to do the work, & engaging in the learning process so you learn & develop. [generally becoming more successful students who persevere]