– Most common disorder
– Lifetime prevalence rate of 28.8%
– Research shows CBT most effective for treatment
– cognitive techniques: Cognitive restructuring; Imagery work;
– behavioural techniques: Behaviour experiments; Exposure; relaxation training; social skills training
– examples:
– panic – recreate in room panic – heart raced & increased breathing did not lead to a panic attack despite the client’s “catastrophic thinking” & misinterpretation of symptoms
– GAD – decrease in physical arousal & tension through PMR & mindfulness exercises
– meta-cognitive work also required:
– examples:
– dysfunctional beliefs bout the process of worry (such as worrying to avoid bad things from happening; & that worry was unavoidable – counter through behaviour experiments & mindfulness techniques such as mindfulness of the breath to disengage from worry & return to the breath
– hyper-vigilance to the signs of worry
– e.g. PTSD sufferers are vigilant for signs of external danger
– e.g. Panic sufferers re vigilant to the signs of internal physiological & mental sensations
– both sufferers often have believe that hyper-vigilance keeps them safe & that when a catastrophic event did not occur, it was their hypervigilance which kept them safe

Meta-cognitive processes are involved in:
– monitoring, controlling, & appraising cognitions

Thought suppression occurs across anxiety disorders
– it often works in short-term, but ultimately backfires, causes the thought more & ultimately causes distress
– for e.g. Panic sufferer – panics won’t happen if I just don’t think about them; or OCD sufferer – I won’t get lost in the thought if I just do not think about the ritual etc.,
– two visualisations:
1. close eyes & for three minutes try to think about anything except yellow cows
2. close eyes & for three minutes & let his mind roam freely, thinking about anything he wanted:
[conclusion: he thought a lot more about yellow cows when trying not to than when h let his mind roam freely]
– you cannot control thoughts (why they are called Automatic Thoughts), but you can control how you respond & relate to them [Note well]

For Metacognitive processes, do a 4 square Cost-benefit analysis [pre & post-event processes]
– advantages and disadvantages of worry
– advantages and disadvantages of an alternate, more helpful/effective strategy



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